An Accountability System is a method of establishing academic standards and measuring student academic achievement by those standards. In the United States, each state is responsible for setting the academic standards and annually testing students on them. Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the results of the annual tests are reported to the public by the state each year. NCLB is a 2001 education reform law designed to hold schools accountable for the performance of students who are struggling to learn.